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An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voscodavti, Voloscovti, Volcovti, Volosovca and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper. Få tillgång till leverantörer. Historia. This gesture was to have unexpected consequences: Petru supplied the Polish ruler with funds needed in the war against the Teutonic Knights, and was granted control over Pokuttya until the debt was to be repaid; as this is not recorded to have been carried out, the region became disputed by the two states, until it was lost by Moldavia in the Battle of Obertyn (1531). In the Middle Ages and early Renaissance, the Moldavians relied on light cavalry (călărași) which used hit-and-run tactics similar to those of the Tatars; this gave them great mobility and also flexibility, in case they found it more suitable to dismount their horses and fight in hand-to-hand combat, as it happened in 1422, when 400 horse archers were sent to aid Jagiellon Poland, Moldavia's overlord against the Teutonic Knights. However, Moldavia and the similarly affected Wallachia remained both important sources of income for the Ottoman Empire and relatively prosperous agricultural economies (especially as suppliers of grain and cattle – the latter was especially relevant in Moldavia, which remained an under-populated country of pastures). Moldova, Moldau,[1] var ett furstendöme i östra Europa. Badan legislatif Moldova adalah Parlemen Moldova (Parlament), yang memiliki 101 kursi dan anggotanya dipilih empat tahun sekali.Kepala negara Moldova adalah presiden, yang dipilih oleh parlemen.. Presiden dapat menunjuk perdana menteri yang … Constitutional Court of Moldova. Moldova menjalankan pemerintahan republik parlementer yang demokratis dan representatif.Konstitusi Moldova 1994 mengatur jalannya pemerintahan. Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people's arrival with the 1241 Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era; he believed that the Romanians took the Roma as slaves from the Mongols and preserved their status to control their labor. The chronicle shows that this[which?] Ottoman Turkish references to Moldavia included Boğdan Iflak (meaning "Bogdan's Wallachia") and Boğdan (and occasionally Kara-Boğdan – "Black Bogdania"). As the manor system suffered the blows of economic crises, and in the absence of salarisation (which implied that persons in office could decide their own income), obtaining princely appointment became the major focus of a boyar's career. In the early 1680s, Moldavian troops under George Ducas intervened in right-bank Ukraine and assisted Mehmed IV in the Battle of Vienna, only to suffer the effects of the Great Turkish War. Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova, pronounced [molˈdova] (listen) or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), literally The Moldavian Country; in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цара Мѡлдовєй) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe,[9][10][11] corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. Russian domination ended abruptly after the Crimean War, when the Treaty of Paris also passed the two Romanian principalities under the tutelage of Great European Powers (together with Russia and the Ottoman overlord, power-sharing included the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Austrian Empire, the French Empire, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and Prussia). Moldova-Türkiye ilişkileri Moldova ile Türkiye Cumhuriyeti arasındaki ikili ilişkilerdir. Other historians consider that the Roma were enslaved while captured during the battles with the Tatars. In the absence of the prince, command was assigned to the Mare Spătar (Grand Sword-Bearer - a military office) or to the Mare Vornic (approx. The Romanian abolitionist movement was also influenced by the much larger movement against Black slavery in the United States through press reports and through a translation of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. For Moldavia, it meant both an important territorial loss and a major blow to the cattle trade, as the region stood on the trade route to Central Europe. A period of relative peace followed during the more prosperous and prestigious rule of Vasile Lupu. There were also slaves of Tatar ethnicity, probably prisoners captured from the wars with the Nogai and Crimean Tatars. Other troops consisted of professional foot soldiers (lefegii) which fulfilled the heavy infantry role, and the plăieși, free peasants whose role was that of border guards: they guarded the mountain passes and were prepared to ambush the enemy and to fight delaying actions. Iske official bhasa Romanian bhasa hai, lekin Moldovame iske "Moldovan bhasa" bola jaawe hai. [18] The Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. Supplying the troops was by tradition-later-made-into-law the duty of the inhabitants of those lands on which the soldiers were present at a given time. Petru II profited from the end of the Hungarian-Polish union and moved the country closer to the Jagiellon realm, becoming a vassal of Władysław II on September 26, 1387. Republic of Moldova, Eastern Europe ke ek des hai. Contemporary historians estimate the population (historically referred to as Moldavians) of the Moldavian Principality in the 15th century, at between 250,000 - 600,000 people,[38][39] but an extensive catagraphy was first conducted in 1769–1774. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory (towards 1216, the Brodniks are mentioned as in service of Suzdal). [33], Traditionally, Roma slaves were divided into three categories. Republik Moldova (Roumaneg : Republica Moldova), pe Moldavia, a zo ur vro ensanket en Europa ar reter, lec'hiet etre Roumania war-du ar c'hornôg hag Ukraina war-du ar reter. Such changes also implied the decline of free peasantry and the rise of serfdom, as well as the rapid fall in the importance of low boyars (a traditional institution, the latter soon became marginal, and, in more successful instances, added to the population of towns); however, they also implied a rapid transition towards a monetary economy, based on exchanges in foreign currency. [32], The exact origins of slavery are not known, as it was a common practice in medieval Europe. Under Bogdan III the One-Eyed, Ottoman overlordship was confirmed in the shape that would rapidly evolve into control over Moldavia's affairs. National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova. Det historiska Moldova visas i gult, med dagens nationsgräns som svart streck och resten av dagens Rumänien i blÃ¥tt. Med de bästa hotellerbjudandena! land is bordered on the principalities of Halych, Volhynia and Kiev. Prova med andra ord som betyder samma sak. The Prut River flows approximately through its middle from north to south. Republica Moldova (abreviată RM sau R.M. Such problems became endemic when the country, brought into the Great Turkish War, suffered the impact of the stagnation of the Ottoman Empire; at one point, during the 1650s and 1660s, princes began relying on counterfeit coinage (usually copies of Swedish riksdalers, as was that issued by Eustratie Dabija). His reign was one of the most successful in Moldavia's history, but also saw the very first confrontation with the Ottoman Turks at Cetatea Albă in 1420, and later even a conflict with the Poles. https://www.ne.se/uppslagsverk/encyklopedi/l%C3%A5ng/moldova, https://sv.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Moldova_(historisk_region)&oldid=48105378, Wikipediaartiklar med identifierare frÃ¥n VIAF, Wikipediaartiklar med identifierare frÃ¥n GND, Creative Commons Erkännande-dela-lika 3.0 Unported. Arhivelor statului, București 1992, L. Bieltz, "MOLDER LANT — o legendă inedită pe monedele emise de Ștefan I — 1394-1399" in, K. Pârvan, "Aspects of Moldavia’s coinage at the end of the fourteenth century", in, Ion Ciortan, Măriuca Radu, Octavian Ion Penda, Descriptio Romaniae (cartographie), National Museum of Maps & old books, Autonomous regie Monitorul oficial, Bucharest 2004, Octavian-Liviu Șovan, Zorile creștinismului în nord-estul Moldovei-repere arheologice, Revista Forum cultural, Anul V, nr.4, decembrie 2005 (19), A.V. Petru Aron's rule also signified the beginning of Moldavia's Ottoman Empire allegiance, as the ruler agreed to pay tribute to Sultan Mehmed II. Somewhere in the 11th century, a Viking named Rodfos was killed by Vlachs presumably in the area of what would become Moldavia. With the economic demands created by the stagnation of the Ottoman Empire, the force diminished and included only mercenaries such as the seimeni. Moldovan pääkaupunki on Chișinău.. Moldova kuuluu Itsenäisten valtioiden yhteisöön. This expedition resulted in a polity vassal to Hungary, in the Baia (Târgul Moldovei or Moldvabánya) region. Coat of arms of Moldavia under Prince Stephen III the Great, 14th century coat of arms of Baia, the first capital of Moldavia, Coat of arms of the Principality of Moldavia depicted on the walls of St. Demetrius Church in Suceava, Coat of arms of the principality of Moldavia, at the Cetățuia Monastery in Iași, 16th century coat of arms of Moldavia during Alexandru Lăpușneanu's reign, on one of the walls from Slatina Monastery, Seal of Michael the Brave (showing the arms of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania), Historical coat of arms of the Duchy of Bukovina, Coat of arms of the Duchy of Bukovina on display at the Palace of Justice in Vienna, Austria, Coat of Arms of the Principality of Moldavia (19th century depiction), Flag of the Moldavian Democratic Republic (1917–18), Medieval flag of Moldavia held by two Romanian soldiers at Sorbonne, Paris, France. Their ethnic identity is uncertain; although Romanian scholars, basing on their ethnonym identify them as Romanians (who were called Vlachs in the Middle Ages), archeological evidence and the Hypatian Chronicle (which is the only primary source that documents their history) suggest that they were a Slavic people.[19][20]. Efter andra världskriget övertog Sovjetunionen den östra regionhalvan Bessarabien. Nonetheless, they also attempted legislative and administrative modernization inspired by The Enlightenment (such as the decision by Constantine Mavrocordatos to salarize public offices, to the outrage of boyars, and the abolition of serfdom in 1749, as well as Scarlat Callimachi's Code), and signified a decrease in Ottoman demands after the threat of Russian annexation became real and the prospects of a better life led to waves of peasant emigration to neighboring lands. Negari puniki jimbarnyane 1,240,192 km² lan akeh kramanyané kirang langkung 3,547,539 diri. Les textes sont disponibles sous licence Creative Commons Attribution-partage dans les mêmes conditions ; d’autres conditions peuvent s’appliquer. Nevertheless, religious policy remained complex: while conversions to faiths other than Orthodox were discouraged (and forbidden for princes), Moldavia included sizable Roman Catholic communities (Germans and Magyars), as well as non-Chalcedonic Armenians; after 1460, the country welcomed Hussite refugees (founders of Ciuburciu and, probably, Huși). 2 January 2015. ↑ "National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova" (ēng Romanian). Presidens blong hem i Mihai Ghimpu. Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova, pronounced or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), literally The Moldavian Country; in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цара Мѡлдовєй) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. However, his invasion of Wallachia, with the backing of Cossack Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, ended in disaster at the Battle of Finta in 1653. Phanariote rule was officially ended after the 1821 occupation of the country by Alexander Ypsilantis's Filiki Eteria during the Greek War of Independence; the subsequent Ottoman retaliation led to the rule of Ioan Sturdza. Grigore Alexandru Ghica allowed the exiled revolutionaries to return to Moldavia c. 1853, which led to the creation of the National Party (Partida Națională), a trans-boundary group of radical union supporters which campaigned for a single state under a foreign dynasty. Sijđo lii majemustáá nubástittum 19 roovvâdmáánu 2020 tijme 16:10. Towards the end of the 15th century, especially after the success of guns and cannons, mercenaries became a dominant force in the country's military. Landet er eit parlamentarisk demokrati med ein president som statsoverhovud og ein statsminister som leiar av regjeringa. A few years later, Moldavia was occupied for two short intervals by the anti-Ottoman Wallachian prince Constantin Șerban, who clashed with the first ruler of the Ghica family, George Ghica. - Moldova, Republica Moldova) i kaontri long Yurop. Hoppa till navigering Hoppa till sök. Moldavija (službeno Republika Moldova; mold. The effects of Ottoman control were also made less notable after the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca allowed Russia to intervene in favour of Ottoman subjects of the Eastern Orthodox faith - leading to campaigns of petitioning by the Moldavian boyars against princely policies. [2] Idag (2020) är omrÃ¥det uppdelat mellan Rumänien, Moldavien och Ukraina. This seldom happened, for such a levée en masse was devastating for both economy and population growth. Stephen blocked Hungarian interventions in the Battle of Baia, invaded Wallachia in 1471, and dealt with Ottoman reprisals in a major victory (the 1475 Battle of Vaslui); after feeling threatened by Polish ambitions, he also attacked Galicia and resisted Polish reprisals in the Battle of the Cosmin Forest (1497). I bÃ¥da landshalvorna var rumänska det dominerade modersmÃ¥let för befolkningen. [37] The heavy cavalry consisted of the nobility, namely, the boyars and their guards, the viteji (lit. In times of crises, The Small Host (Oastea Mică) — which consisted of around 10,000 to 12,000 men — stood ready to engage the enemy, while the Large Host (Oastea Mare) — which could reach up to 40,000 — had all the free peasantry older than 14, and strong enough to carry a sword or use the bow, recruited. [21] In 1164, the future Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, was taken prisoner by Vlach shepherds in the same region. Stephen justified this by saying that "every man has a duty to defend his fatherland"; according to Polish chronicler Jan Długosz, if someone was found without carrying a weapon, he was sentenced to death. The largest cities (as per last censuses) and metropolitan areas in the Moldavia region are: In 1562, the so-called Schola Latina (a Latin Academic College) was founded in Cotnari, near Iași, a school which marked the beginnings of the organized humanistic education institutions in Moldavia.[42]. Testa att ställa en fråga på Yahoo Svar ; Yahoo; Hjälp; Förslag; Integritet (Uppdaterade) Under the reign of Stephen the Great, all farmers and villagers had to bear arms. After further meetings among leaders of tutor states, an agreement was reached (the Paris Convention), whereby a limited union was to be enforced – separate governments and thrones, with only two bodies (a Court of Cassation and a Central Commission residing in Focșani); it also stipulated that an end to all privilege was to be passed into law, and awarded back to Moldavia the areas around Bolhrad, Cahul, and Izmail. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine. The crisis was finally settled in favor of the Moldavian princes under Alexander I. In 1342 and 1345, the Hungarians were victorious in a battle against Tatar-Mongols; the conflict was resolved by the death of Jani Beg, in 1357. Begun as a military occupation under the command of Pavel Kiselyov, Russian domination gave Wallachia and Moldavia, which were not removed from nominal Ottoman control, the modernizing Organic Statute (the first document resembling a constitution, as well as the first to regard both principalities). The issue of the Roma slavery became a theme in the literary works of various liberal and Romantic intellectuals, many of whom were active in the abolitionist camp. Despite the founding of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Siret, this move did not have any lasting consequences. Prova mer allmänna ord. Andra historiska regioner – vid sidan av Moldova, Bukovina och Valakiet – är Transsylvanien och Dobrogea. The first high education structure in Romanian language was established in the autumn of 1813, when Gheorghe Asachi laid the foundations of a class of engineers, its activities taking place within the Greek Princely Academy. In 1844, Moldavian Prince Mihail Sturdza proposed a law on the freeing of slaves owned by the church and state. thông tin), tên chính thức Cộng hoà Moldova (Republica Moldova) là một quốc gia nằm kín trong lục địa ở Đông Âu, giữa România ở phía tây và Ukraina ở phía bắc, đông và nam.. Thời cổ đại, lãnh thổ hiện nay của nước này là một … Similar necropolises and places of worship were found at Nicolina, in Iași[17], The Bolohoveni, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century. Used for liturgical purposes until the 18th century. The practice of enslaving prisoners may also have been taken from the Mongols. Moldova (hivatalos nevén Moldovai Köztársaság, románul Republica Moldova, a magyar köznyelvben is gyakran használt oroszos nevén Moldávia) független, demokratikus állam a Kelet-európai-síkvidéken.Határai: északon, keleten és délen Ukrajna, nyugaton pedig Románia.Moldova keleti része, a Dnyeszter Menti Köztársaság, (rövidebben Transznisztria) egy szakadár de facto állam. Cavalerii Apocalipsului: Calamitatile Naturale Din Trecutul Romaniei (Pana La 1800), Paul Cernovodeanu, Paul Binder, 1993, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Slavery in Romania § Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia, Chernivtsi Oblast § Population and demographics, Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans, The Cultural Landscape Orheiul Vechi (Old Orhei), The Typical Crernozem Soils of the Balti Steppe, A document issued by Michael the Brave in 1600, in Iași, First activities of population counting conducted on the Romanian territory of today, "Schola Latina - The Foundation of the first School in which mathematics was taught in Roumania", History of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, Romanian Group for an Alternative History Website, Pilgrimage and Cultural Heritage Tourism in Moldavia, Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Moldavia&oldid=994785375, Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire, States and territories established in 1346, States and territories disestablished in 1859, Fiefs of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Articles containing Ukrainian-language text, Articles with Romanian-language sources (ro), Articles containing Romanian-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Turkish-language text, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2019, Wikipedia articles with TDVÄ°A identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A landowner named Alexa Moldaowicz is mentioned in a 1334 document as a local, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 14:49. "brave ones", small nobility) and the curteni — the Court Cavalry (all nominally part of the Small Host). In 1860, three faculties part of the Academia Mihăileană formed the nucleus for the newly established University of Iași, the first Romanian modern university. See also names in other languages. Despite remaining officially Eastern Orthodox and culturally connected with the Byzantine Empire after 1382, princes of the House of Bogdan-Mușat entered a conflict with the Constantinople Patriarchy over control of appointments to the newly founded Moldavian Metropolitan seat; Patriarch Antony IV even cast an anathema over Moldavia after Roman I expelled his appointee back to Byzantium. Den nordvästligaste delen av det historiska Moldova ingÃ¥r idag i Ukraina som norra Bukovina. He was considered the first of a new system, since the Ottomans and Russia had agreed in 1826 to allow for the election by locals of rulers over the two Danubian Principalities, and convened on their mandating for seven-year terms. Republica Moldova; AlmmolaÅ¡ giella: Moldoviagiella romániagiella (Dihto guovlluin ruoÅ¡Å¡agiella ja ukrainagiella) Oaivegávpot: Chișinău: Presideanta: Maia Sandu: Oaiveministtar: Vlad Filat: Viidodat - Oktiibuot - % čáhci: 33 843 km². His brother Roman I conquered the Hungarian-ruled Cetatea Albă in 1392, giving Moldavia an outlet to the Black Sea, before being toppled from the throne for supporting Fyodor Koriatovych in his conflict with Vytautas the Great of Lithuania. Ioan Vodă's revolt against the Ottomans ended in his execution (1574). Moldova (ametlik nimetus: Moldova Vabariik) on merepiirita riik Euroopas, täpsemalt Ida-Euroopas.Piirneb Ukrainaga idas ja Rumeeniaga läänes. This represents 88.2% of the Republic of Moldova's surface, 18% of Romania's surface, and 3.5% of Ukraine's surface. egymillió évesek. Moldova ta un pais den Oropa, tin un area di 33 846 kilometer kuadrá i un populashon di 2 913 281 (2014). Exactly three years later, after diplomatic missions that helped remove opposition to the action, the formal union created the United Principalities (the basis of modern Romania) and instituted Cuza as Domnitor (all legal matters were clarified after the replacement of the prince with Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in April 1866, and the creation of an independent Kingdom of Romania in 1881) - this officially ending the existence of the Principality of Moldavia. Schooners armed with cannons were first built in the 1840s. Nevertheless, Moldavia was subject to further Hungarian interventions after that moment, as Matthias Corvinus deposed Aron and backed Alexăndrel to the throne in Suceava. Vi har valt ut de bästa hotellen Moldova, offisielt Republikken Moldova (moldovsk: Republica Moldova), er et land i Øst-Europa uten kystlinje, som ligger mellom Romania i vest og Ukraina i øst. Landet har ikke adgang til Sortehavet og udgjorde fra 1945 til 1991 en delrepublik i Sovjetunionen . Man ombildade det omrÃ¥det till den nya sovjetrepubliken Moldaviska SSR och integrerade omrÃ¥det med mellankrigstidens Moldaviska ASSR öster om Dnjestr. Populaesen blong Moldova i stap araon 2,913,281 (2014). His realm extended north to the Cheremosh River, while the southern part of Moldavia was still occupied by the Tatar Mongols. The Treaty of Adrianople provided for a Moldavian self-defense naval force, to be composed of caicque vessels. Prova med förslagen nedan eller ange en ny fråga. Sultan Ahmed III officially discarded recognition of local choices for princes, imposing instead a system relying solely on Ottoman approval: the Phanariote epoch, inaugurated by the reign of Nicholas Mavrocordatos. The names Moldavia and Moldova are derived from the name of the Moldova River; however, the etymology is not known and there are several variants:[12][13], On a series of coins of Peter I and Stephen I minted by Saxon masters and with German legends, the reverse feature the name of Moldavia in the form Molderlang/Molderlant (recte Molderland).[14][15].

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